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Networking Structure

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. In computer networks, computing devices exchange data with each other using connections (data links) between nodes. These data links are established over cable media such as wires or optic cables, or wireless media such as WiFi. Network computer devices that originate, route and terminate the data are called network nodes. Nodes can include hosts such as personal computers, phones, servers as well as networking hardware. Two such devices can be said to be networked together when one device is able to exchange information with the other device, whether or not they have a direct connection to each other. In most cases, application-specific communications protocols are layered (i.e. carried as payload) over other more general communications protocols. This formidable collection of information technology requires skilled network management to keep it all running reliably. Computer networks support an enormous number of applications and services such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video, digital audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications as well as many others. Computer networks differ in the transmission medium used to carry their signals, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network’s size, topology, traffic control mechanism and organizational intent. The best-known computer network is the Internet.

Data Center

A data center is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g. air conditioning, fire suppression) and various security devices. A large data center is an industrial-scale operation using as much electricity as a small town. Data center services encompass all of the services and facility-related components or activities that support the implementation, maintenance, operation, and enhancement of a data center, which is an environment that provides processing, storage, networking, management and the distribution of data within an enterprise. Generally, data center services fall into two categories: services provided to a data center or services provided from a data center.

Gigabit Passive Optical Networks

GPON is a point-to-multi point access mechanism. Its main characteristic is the use of passive splitters in the fibre distribution network, enabling one single feeding fibre from the provider’s central office to serve multiple homes and small businesses. GPON uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for security purpose. GPON gives the end user the ability to consolidate multiple services onto a single fibre transport network. This technology reduces costs and infrastructure while increasing bandwidth. It provides 2.5 GB/s of downstream bandwidth and 1.25 GB/s upstream divided by the split ratio to each customer delivering a customisable, high capacity fibre network for forms of IP based services. These networks are the perfect solution for environments with multiple separated nodes / points or buildings. GPON provides for a large range of benefits that enable rapid, flexible, mass‐market fibre deployments at the lowest possible cost of ownership and rollout.

Combining full IP‐based connectivity and the latest fibre to the end point innovations, gigabit passive optical networks (GPON) are increasingly appearing as the key mature network technology.

Switches

A network switch (also called switching hub, bridging hub, officially MAC bridge) is a computer networking device that connects devices together on a computer network by using packet switching to receive, process, and forward data to the destination device. A network switch is a multiport network bridge that uses hardware addresses to process and forward data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Some switches can also process data at the network layer (layer 3) by additionally incorporating routing functionality. Such switches are commonly known as layer-3 switches or multilayer switches. Switches for Ethernet are the most common form of network switch. The first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in 1990. Switches also exist for other types of networks including Fibre Channel, Asynchronous Transfer Mode, and InfiniBand.

Router

A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the traffic directing functions on the Internet. Data sent through the internet, such as a web page or email, is in the form of data packets. A packet is typically forwarded from one router to another router through the networks that constitute an internetwork until it reaches its destination node.

A router is connected to two or more data lines from different networks. When a data packet comes in on one of the lines, the router reads the network address information in the packet to determine the ultimate destination. Then, using information in its routing table or routing policy, it directs the packet to the next network on its journey.

Fiber Optic Cable

GPON is a point-to-multi point access mechanism. Its main characteristic is the use of passive splitters in the fibre distribution network, enabling one single feeding fibre from the provider’s central office to serve multiple homes and small businesses. GPON uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for security purpose. GPON gives the end user the ability to consolidate multiple services onto a single fibre transport network. This technology reduces costs and infrastructure while increasing bandwidth. It provides 2.5 GB/s of downstream bandwidth and 1.25 GB/s upstream divided by the split ratio to each customer delivering a customisable, high capacity fibre network for forms of IP based services. These networks are the perfect solution for environments with multiple separated nodes / points or buildings. GPON provides for a large range of benefits that enable rapid, flexible, mass‐market fibre deployments at the lowest possible cost of ownership and rollout.

Combining full IP‐based connectivity and the latest fibre to the end point innovations, gigabit passive optical networks (GPON) are increasingly appearing as the key mature network technology.

Closed-circuit television (CCTV)

Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance,[1][2] is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point (P2P), point to multipoint (P2MP), or mesh wired or wireless links. Though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, stores, and other areas where security is needed. Though Videotelephony is seldom called “CCTV” one exception is the use of video in distance education, where it is an important tool. Surveillance of the public using CCTV is common in many areas around the world. In recent years, the use of body worn video cameras has been introduced as a new form of surveillance, often used in law enforcement, with cameras located on a police officer’s chest or head.[5] Video surveillance has generated significant debate about balancing its use with individuals’ right to privacy even when in public.

In industrial plants, CCTV equipment may be used to observe parts of a process from a central control room, for example when the environment is not suitable for humans. CCTV systems may operate continuously or only as required to monitor a particular event. A more advanced form of CCTV, utilizing digital video recorders (DVRs), provides recording for possibly many years, with a variety of quality and performance options and extra features (such as motion detection and email alerts). More recently, decentralized IP cameras, some equipped with megapixel sensors, support recording directly to network-attached storage devices, or internal flash for completely stand-alone operation.

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Access Control System

A sailor checks an identification card (ID) before allowing a vehicle to enter a military installation. In the fields of physical security and information security, access control (AC) is the selective restriction of access to a place or other resource. The act of accessing may mean consuming, entering, or using. Permission to access a resource is called authorization. Locks and login credentials are two analogous mechanisms of access control.

When a credential is presented to a reader, the reader sends the credential’s information, usually a number, to a control panel, a highly reliable processor. The control panel compares the credential’s number to an access control list, grants or denies the presented request, and sends a transaction log to a database. When access is denied based on the access control list, the door remains locked. If there is a match between the credential and the access control list, the control panel operates a relay that in turn unlocks the door. The control panel also ignores a door open signal to prevent an alarm. Often the reader provides feedback, such as a flashing red LED for an access denied and a flashing green LED for an access granted.

Fire Alarm System

A fire alarm notification appliance that is used in the United States and Canada, a Wheelock MT-24-LSM horn/strobe. A fire alarm system has a number of devices working together to detect and warn people through visual and audio appliances when smoke, fire, carbon monoxide or other emergencies are present. These alarms may be activated automatically from smoke detectors, and heat detectors or may also be activated via manual fire alarm activation devices such as manual call points or pull stations. Alarms can be either motorized bells or wall mountable sounders or horns. They can also be speaker strobes which sound an alarm, followed by a voice evacuation message which warns people inside the building not to use the elevators. Fire alarm sounders can be set to certain frequencies and different tones including low, medium and high, depending on the country and manufacturer of the device. Most fire alarm systems in Europe sound like a siren with alternating frequencies. Fire alarm electronic devices are known as horns in the United States and Canada, and can be either continuous or set to different codes such as Code 3. Fire alarm warning devices can also be set to different volume levels. Fire Alarm systems in the United Kingdom are tested at a weekly basis in compliance with the BS-fire 2013 regulations.

PA (Public Addressable)

A public address system (PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment. It increases the apparent volume (loudness) of a human voice, musical instrument, or other acoustic sound source or recorded sound or music. PA systems are used in any public venue that requires that an announcer, performer, etc. be sufficiently audible at a distance or over a large area. Typical applications include sports stadiums, public transportation vehicles and facilities, and live or recorded music venues and events. A PA system may include multiple microphones or other sound sources, a mixing console to combine and modify multiple sources, and multiple amplifiers and loudspeakers for louder volume or wider distribution.

Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. PA systems with many speakers are widely used to make announcements in public, institutional and commercial buildings and locations—such as schools, stadiums, and passenger vessels and aircraft. Intercom systems, installed in many buildings, have both speakers throughout a building, and microphones in many rooms so occupants can respond to announcements. PA and Intercom systems are commonly used as part of an emergency communication system.

Fire Hydrant System

A fire hydrant, also called a fireplug, fire pump, johnny pump, or simply pump, is a connection point by which firefighters can tap into a water supply. It is a component of active fire protection. The user attaches a hose to the fire hydrant, then opens a valve on the hydrant to provide a powerful flow of water, on the order of 350 kPa (50 pounds per square inch gauge (psig)) (this pressure varies according to region and depends on various factors including the size and location of the attached water main). This user can attach this hose to a fire engine, which can use a powerful pump to boost the water pressure and possibly split it into multiple streams. One may connect the hose with a threaded connection, instantaneous “quick connector” or a Storz connector. A user should take care not to open or close a fire hydrant too quickly, as this can cause a water hammer, which can damage nearby pipes and equipment. The water inside a charged hose line causes it to be very heavy and high water pressure causes it to be stiff and unable to make a tight turn while pressurized. When a fire hydrant is unobstructed, this is not a problem, as there is enough room to adequately position the hose.

Fire Suppression System

Fire suppression systems are used to extinguish or prevent the spread of fire in a building. Suppression systems use a combination of dry chemicals and/or wet agents to suppress equipment fires.

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Boom Barriers

A boom barrier, also known as a boom gate, is a bar, or pole pivoted to allow the boom to block vehicular access through a controlled point. Typically the tip of a boom gate rises in a vertical arc to a near vertical position. Boom gates are often counterweighted, so the pole is easily tipped. Boom gates are often paired either end to end, or offset appropriately to block traffic in both directions. Some boom gates also have a second arm which hangs 300 to 400 mm below the upper arm when lowered, to increase approach visibility, and which hangs on links so it lies flat with the main boom as the barrier is raised. Some barriers also feature a pivot roughly half way, where as the barrier is raised, the outermost half remains horizontal, with the barrier resembling an upside-down L when raised.

There are various technologies for an automatic boom barrier. One of them is electro-mechanical, which is widely used due to its reliability. The other technologies are often manufacturer specific. These electro-mechanical devices come with 24VDC drive units which can run continuously without generating heat, so electro-mechanical boom barriers can be operated continuously and in an intensive duty cycle.

Building Management System

A building management system (BMS), otherwise known as a building automation system (BAS), is a computer-based control system installed in buildings that controls and monitors the building’s mechanical and electrical equipment such as ventilation, lighting, power systems, fire systems, and security systems. A BMS consists of software and hardware; the software program, usually configured in a hierarchical manner, can be proprietary, using such protocols as C-Bus, Profibus, and so on. Vendors are also producing a BMS that integrates the use of Internet protocols and open standards such as DeviceNet, SOAP, XML, BACnet, LonWorks and Modbus.

Building management systems are most commonly implemented in large projects with extensive mechanical, HVAC, and electrical systems. Systems linked to a BMS typically represent 40% of a building’s energy usage; if lighting is included, this number approaches to 70%. BMS systems are a critical component to managing energy demand. Improperly configured BMS systems are believed to account for 20% of building energy usage, or approximately 8% of total energy usage In addition to controlling the building’s internal environment, BMS systems are sometimes linked to access control (turnstiles and access doors controlling who is allowed access and egress to the building) or other security systems such as closed-circuit television (CCTV) and motion detectors. Fire alarm systems and elevators are also sometimes linked to a BMS, for monitoring. In case a fire is detected then only the fire alarm panel could shut off dampers in the ventilation system to stop smoke spreading and send all the elevators to the ground floor and park them to prevent people from using them.

IT FMS

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Infrastructure

As enterprises scale their IT infrastructure to support business growth, managing global networks, databases and applications becomes a herculean task which can overwhelm internal resources. We offers a complete portfolio of solutions and services for managing enterprise IT infrastructures. Our Infrastructure Management Services are a comprehensive set of services that helps customers to fully utilize their Hardware investments by improving availability, reliability and performance. Netcominfra Pvt. Ltd. infrastructure practices concentrate on building expertise that deals with the entire need of an organization including technology consulting, design, capacity planning, deployment, migration, performance management and optimization.